Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change.
Pied-Noir (French pronunciation: [pjenwaʁ], Black-Foot), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term referring to Christian and Jewish people whose families had migrated from all parts of the Mediterranean to French Algeria, the French protectorate in Morocco, or the French protectorate of Tunisia, where many had lived for several generations, and who were expelled at the end of French rule in North Africa between 1956 and 1962.
Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.
Emigration is the act of leaving one's resident country with the intent to settle elsewhere.
Settlement of the Americas
Available scientific evidence indicates that humanity emerged from Africa over 100,000 years ago, yet did not arrive in the Americas until less than 20,000 years ago.
Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas into urban areas.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state.
European Americans (also known as Euro-Americans) are Americans with ancestry from Europe.
Citizenship of the European Union
Citizenship of the European Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty, which was signed in 1992, and has been in force since 1993.
Early human migrations
Earliest human migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the migration out of Africa of Homo erectus.
Transhumance is the seasonal movement of people with their livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures.
Geographic mobility is the measure of how populations move over time.
Repatriation is the process of returning a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to his or her place of origin or citizenship.
Human capital flight
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of highly skilled or well-educated individuals.
Italian Americans (Italian: italoamericani or italo-americani [ˌitalo.ameriˈkaːni]) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Italy, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Resident registration in Russia
Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.
Right of return
The right of return is a principle which is drawn from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, intended to enable people to return to, and re-enter, their country of origin.
According to the widely accepted Kurgan hypothesis, the Indo-European language and culture spread in several stages from the Proto-Indo-European Eurasian homeland in the Pontic steppes, into Western Europe, Central and South Asia.
A displaced person (sometimes abbreviated DP) is a person who has been forced to leave his or her home or place of habitual residence, a phenomenon known as forced migration.
Illegal emigration refers to a person moving across national borders in a way that violates emigration laws.
A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border.
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country (typically to a foreigner) to enter and temporarily remain within, or to leave that country.
Common Travel Area
The Common Travel Area (Irish: Comhlimistéar Taistil) is an open borders area comprising Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
Palestinian return to Israel
Palestinian return to Israel refers to the movement of Palestinians into the territory of Israel.
American-Born Confused Desi
American-Born Confused Desi (ABCD) is a term used to refer to South Asian Americans born or raised in the United States, in contrast to those who were born overseas and later settled in the USA.
Mass migration refers to the migration of large groups of people from one geographical area to another.
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees into another country and applies for asylum, i.
Right of abode
The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country.
Migrant sex work
Migrant sex work is the work done by migrant workers in prostitution.
Foreign born scientists and engineers in the United States
In the United States of America, a significant proportion of scientists and engineers are foreign-born, as well as students in science and engineering programs.
Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian
Indo-Trinidadian and Tobagonian (shortened as Indo-Trinidadian) are nationals of Trinidad and Tobago of Indian heritage or descent.
History of immigration to Canada
The historical immigration from China and India extends back thousands of years.
Foreign born (also non-native) people are those born outside of their country of residence.
Women migrant workers from developing countries
Since the later 20th century, there has been substantial labour migration from developing countries to high-income countries.
Pre-modern human migration
Early human migrations began with the movement of Homo erectus out of Africa across Eurasia about a million years ago.
Macro-haplogroup L (mtDNA)
In human mitochondrial genetics, L is the mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup that is at the root of the human mtDNA phylogenetic tree.